Shah Inayatullah

Shah Ïnayatullah (Sindhi: شاه عنایت اللہ ) (c. 1655 – 1718), popularly known as Sufi Shah Inayat Shaheed, Shah Shaheed, sometimes referred as the First Social Reformer of Sindh was a 17th-century Revolutionary from Jhok, Sindh, Pakistan who was executed by Yar Muhammad Kalhoro in early eighteenth century. Sufi Inayat was accused of leading small army of farmers (Harees) of his area to challenge the domination of Delhi ruler Farrukhsiyar, local feudal landlords and Mullahs. His mantra was “Jo Kherray so Khaey” (Sindhi: جو کيڙي سو کائي ), means the one who ploughs has the foremost right on the yield. The popularity of Sufi Shah Inayat forced the feudal landlords of the area to contact Mughal King Farrukhsiyar who on wrong information ordered the ruler of northern Sindh Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro to uproot the Sufi Inayat and his companions. A prolonged siege of Jhok resulted in the offer of negotiations from Kalhora commander and Sufi Inayat accepted the offer to avoid further bloodshed. As he arrived for the negotiations in the enemy camp he was arrested and later executed in Thatto.

Early life

Shah Inayat's Lineage is traced through Fazlullah to Sadu Langah whose family was quite influential in Multan. Sadu langah's ancestors are said have migrated from Baghdad and settled in Uch near Multan where they became attached to Suhrawardi saints of this place. Shah inayat spent entire period of his youth in Sindh.

Journey in quest for Truth

He wandered around in search of a mystical leader until he met Shah Abdul malik ibn Shah Ubaidullah Jilani Qadiri (d. 1699) in Bijapur. After he had apparently transgressed the stage of fana fi'sh Shykh, the complete identification with mystical leader, and had reached the highest degree of mystical leadership himself, Shah Abdul Malik sent him to Delhi for learning outward sciences at the hand of Shah Ghulam Muhammad; then he returned Sindh. His teacher, deeply inspired by his spiritual achievements, followed him and settled too in Thatta. Since Shah Inayat had reached highest degree of annihilation and was free from tribulation of outward world, the orthodox theologians of Thatta and 'Scholars of outward knowledge' disapproved him declaring him heretic. The only theologian in Thatta who accepted Shah inayat's claims enthusiastically was Makhdoom Muhammad Moeen Thattvi (d.1748). Shah Inayat considered it wiser to leave hostile atmosphere of Thatta with a group of disciples and returned to his home place: Jhok, literally, a place where camels kneels down or where a large number of people settle down.