Fariduddin Mas’ud Ganjshakar (Punjabi: urmukhi (Shahmukhi)) (1173-1266) or (1188 (584 Hijri) – May 7, 1280 (679 Hijri)), commonly known as Baba Farid (Shahmukhi), (Gurmukhi)), was a 12th-century Sufi preacher and saint of the Chishti Order of South Asia. Fariduddin Ganjshakar is generally recognized as the first major poet of the Punjabi language, and is considered one of the pivotal saints of the Punjab region. Revered by Muslims and Hindus, he is considered one of the fifteen Sikh bhagats, and selections from his work are included in the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh sacred scripture. He is buried in Pakpattan, in present-day Punjab, Pakistan
LifeBÄbÄ Farid was born in 1173 or 1188 AD (584 Hijri) at Kothewal village, 10 km from Multan in the Punjab region of the Chauhan dynasty in what is now Pakistan, to JamÄl-ud-dÄ«n SuleimÄn and Maryam BÄ«bÄ« (Qarsum BÄ«bÄ«), daughter of Sheikh WajÄ«h-ud-dÄ«n KhojendÄ«. He was a descendant of the FarrÅ«khzÄd, known as JamÄl-ud-Dawlah, a Persian (Tajik) king of eastern Khorasan. He was the grandson of Sheikh Shu’aib, who was the grandson of Farrukh Shah Kabuli, the king of Kabul and Ghazna. When Farrukh ShÄh KÄbulÄ« was killed by the Mongol hordes invading Kabul, FarÄ«dâ€™s grandfather, Shaykh Shu’aib, left Afghanistan and settled in the Punjab in 1125. FarÄ«dâ€™s genealogy is a source of dispute, as some trace his ancestors back to al-Husayn while others trace his lineage back to the second Caliph Umar ibn Khattab. Baba Farid’s ancestors came from Kufa, while Abdullah ibn Umar died during the Hajj and was buried in Makkah. The family tree of Baba Fareed traces through Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Adham, whose ancestors came from Kufa. Fariduddin Ganjshakar was born in the city of Balkh. His nickname was Abu Ishaq. Khwajah Fudhail Bin Iyadh had conferred the mantle of Khilaafate to him. Besides being the Khalifah of Hadhrat Fudhail, he was also the Khalifah of Khwajah Imran Ibn Musa, Khwajah Imam Baqir, Khwajah Shaikh Mansur Salmi and Khwajah Uwais Qarni.” BÄbÄ FarÄ«d received his early education at Multan, which had become a centre for education; it was here that he met his murshid (master), Quá¹buddÄ«n BakhtiyÄr KÄkÄ«, a noted Sufi saint, who was passing through Multan, from Baghdad on his way to Delhi. Upon completing his education, FarÄ«d left for Sistan and Kandahar and went to Mecca for the Hajj pilgrimage at the age of 16. Once his education was over, he shifted to Delhi, where he learned the doctrine of his master, Quá¹buddÄ«n BakhtiyÄr KÄkÄ«. He later moved to Hansi, Haryana. When Quá¹buddÄ«n BakhtiyÄr KÄkÄ« died in 1235, FarÄ«d left Hansi and became his spiritual successor, but he settled in Ajodhan (the present Pakpattan, Pakistan) instead of Delhi. On his way to Ajodhan, while passing through Faridkot, he met the 20-year-old NizÄmuddin, who went on to become his disciple, and later his successor (khalifah). BÄbÄ Farid married Hazabara, daughter of Sulá¹Än Nasiruddin Maá¸¥mÅ«d. The great Arab traveller Ibn Baá¹Å«á¹ah visited him. He says that he was the spiritual guide of the King of India, and that the King had given him the village of Ajodhan. He also met BÄbÄ FarÄ«d’s two sons. His shrine (darbÄr) is in Pakpattan BÄbÄ FarÄ«d’s descendants, also known as Fareedi, Fareedies and Faridy, mostly carry the name FÄrÅ«qÄ«, and can be found in Pakistan, India and the diaspora. His descendants include the Sufi saint Salim Chishti, whose daughter was Emperor Jehangir’s foster mother. Their descendants settled in Sheikhupur, Badaun and the remains of a fort they built can still be foun.