Balochi Culture

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi: بلوچ) are a tribal society and an ethnic group who are native to the Balochistan region in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Southwest Asia. The Baloch people mainly speak Balochi, which is a branch of the Iranian languages, and more specifically of the Northwestern Iranian languages, that is Kurdish and other Iranic languages of the region. It also contains archaic features reminiscent of Old Persian and Avestan. [8] They inhabit mountainous terrains and deserts, and maintain a very distinct cultural identity. The Baloch-speaking population worldwide is estimated to be in the range of 10 to 15 million. However, the exact number of Baloch and those who are or claim to be of Baloch ancestry is difficult to determine. In the Punjab province of Pakistan almost 10% of people are Balochi. Most of them speak the Seraiki language. It is possible that there are more Baloch than simply those who claim Balochi as their mother tongue. This, however, raises the question as to who is and is not a Baloch, as many surrounding peoples claim to be of Baloch descent but do not speak Balochi. The Brahui, having lived in proximity to the Baloch, have absorbed substantial linguistic and genetic admixture from the Baloch and in many cases are indistinguishable. Despite very few cultural differences from the Baloch, the Brahui are still regarded as a separate group on account of language difference. The higher population figures for the Baloch may only be possible if a large number of “Baloch” are included who speak different languages like Saraiki, Sindhi, Punjabi and Brahui, and who often claim descent from Baloch ancestors. Many Baloch outside of Balochistan are also bilingual or of mixed ancestry due to their proximity to other ethnic groups, including the Sindhis, Brahui, Persians, Seraikis and Pashtuns. A large number of Baloch have been migrating to or living in provinces adjacent to Balochistan for centuries. Balochs make up 2% of Iran’s population (1.5 million), there are many Baloch living in other parts of the world, with the bulk living in the GCC countries of the Persian Gulf. About 60% percent of the Baluch live in East Balochistan, a western province in the Pakistan.[9] Around 25% percent inhabit the eastern province of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the Islamic Republic of Iran, about 35 to 40% Pakistani Sindhis are of Baloch origin[citation needed] and are settled in Sindh and also a significant number of Baloch people in South Punjab of Pakistan. Many of the rest live in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and in some parts of Africa, namely Kenya, and Tanzania (Tabora has a large community). Small communities of Baluch people also live in Europe particularly Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England and in Perth, Australia, where they arrived in the 19th century.
Origin
Like other middle eastern ethnic groups, the Baluch claim Arabian extraction, asserting that they are descendant of Amir Hamza, a paternal uncle of Islamic Prophet Muhammad and from a fairy (Pari). They consistently place their first settlement in Aleppo, where they remained until, siding the sons of Ali and taking part in the Battle of Karbala, they were expelled by Yazid, the second of the Omayyad Caliphs, in 680 A.D. Thence they first to Kerman, and eventually to Sistan where they were hospitably received by Shams-ud-Din, ruler of that country. According to Dames there was a Shams-ud-Din, independent Malik of Sistan, who claimed descent from the Saffarids of Persia who died in 1164 A.D. (559 A.H.) or nearly 500 years after the Baloch migration from Aleppo. Badr-ud-Din appears to be unknown to history. His successor, Badr-ud-Din, demanded, according to eastern usage, a bride from each of the 44 bolaks or clans of the Baloch. But the Baloch race had never yet been tribute in this form to any ruler, and they sent therfore 44 boys dressed in girls’ clothes and fled before the deception could be discovered. Badr-ud-Din sent the boys back but pursued the Baloch, who had fled south-eastwards, into Kech-Makran where he was defeated at their hands. At this period Mir Jalal Khan, son of Jiand, was the ruler of all the Baloch. He left four sons, Rind, Lashar, Hot, and Korai, and a daughter Jato, who married his nephew Murad. These five are the eponymous founders of the five great divisions of the tribe, the Rinds, Lasharis, Hooths, Korais, and Jatois.
Baluchi culture
Baluchi customs and traditions are conducted according to codes imposed by tribal laws. These strong traditions and cultural values are important to Baluch people and have enabled them to keep their distinctive ancient cultural identity and way of life with little change to this day.
The culture and traditions of the Baluch have historically been passed down from mother to daughter, and men from father to son. Baluchi culture is mentioned in the Pir M. Zehi’s account of his travel to the province of Sakestan, or the present-day Sistan province of Iran, which holds strong significance to the culture of Baluch people. Baluch people have preserved their traditional dress with little change over the centuries. The Baluch men wear long shirts with long sleeves and loose pants. the dress is occasionally accompanied by a pagh (turban) or a hat on their heads.
The Baluchi costume varies from Iran to Pakistan; the above pictures and description are for Pakistan Baluchi tribes. Iran Baluch dress code is more conservative in sense of length and material. Some Baluch women in Iran also cover their faces with thick red color wools (Burqah) and wear a (Sareeg) which is the head scarf and (Chadar) which is a long veil. No pictures are available. The dress worn by Baluch women is one of the most interesting aspects of Baluchi culture. They are of strong significance to the culture of Iran and hold a special place in the society. The women put on loose dress and pants with sophisticated and colourful needlework, including a large pocket at the front of the dress to hold their accessories. The upper part of the dress and sleeves are also decorated with needlework, a form of artistry that is specific to the clothing of the Baluch women. Often the dress also contains round or square pieces of glass to further enhance the presentation. They cover their hair with a scarf, called a sarig in the local dialect.[28] These customs are unique to the people of Iran and the art of this needlework on women’s clothing may provide one with a picture of the freedom and high status of Baluch women in Achaemenid era.[29] Gold ornaments such as necklaces and bracelets are an important aspect of Baluch women’s traditions and among their most favoured items of jewellery are dorr, heavy earrings that are fastened to the head with gold chains so that the heavy weight will not cause harm to the ears. They usually wear a gold brooch (tasni) that is made by local jewellers in different shapes and sizes and is used to fasten the two parts of the dress together over the chest. In ancient times, especially during the pre-Islamic era, it was common for Baluch women to perform dances and sing folk songs at different events. The tradition of a Baluch mother singing lullabies to her children has played an important role in the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation since ancient times. Apart from the dressing style of the Baluch, indigenous and local traditions and customs are also of great importance to the Baluch. Baluch people are culturally and traditionally regarded as secular. However, Baluch people are a minority, and growing Islamic fundamentalism in the region is seen as a threat to Baluchi culture.
Tribes
The people belonging to Baloch tribe speak balochi language. Balochi language is an ancient language. Its roots are traced back to Iranian branch of Indo-European family.  It has resemblance with languages such as Sansikrat, Avesta, Old Persian and Phalavi, which now a days are said to be as dead languages. This tribe is further divided in to
Bozdar
 Rind
 Lashar
 Marri
 Jamot
Ahmedzai
 Bugti
domki
 Magsi
Khosa
Rakhashani
 Dashti Umrani
 Nosherwani
Gichki
 Buledi
 Sanjarani
 Khidai
The tribe has a head known as “sardar”, the sub divided tribes also have heads known as “Malik” or “Takari” or “Mir”. These tribe heads are members of districts and local Jirgas.
 
Marriages
In Baloch culture marriages are different and unique than in the other provinces of the country. The marriages are according to Islamic principles in presence of a Mullana along with the presence of witnesses. Every member of the family takes part in the marriage; they express their joy and happiness by following the traditions of their culture. Usually the marriages are done in young ages (teenage) but are arranged in early childhood or at birth. There is a very low or negligible ratio of love marriages as this is not appreciated across the culture in all tribes. Usually the marriages take place within tribes but at times intra tribal marriages are also conducted. Divorce rate is very low in the Baluchistan as compared to the other provinces of Pakistan because they consider is a matter of disrespect for the family and honor of the tribe. Different rituals are celebrated in different tribes. In some tribes there is a tradition of takings “Valver”, it is a sum of money paid by the groom to the family of the bride.

Dressing
Like all the other provinces of Pakistan the national dress shalwar kameez with distinct additions and modifications are worn in Baloch culture. The people dress up very pleasingly and in the same way in all the tribes. Turban is the common headwear of Bloch men along with wide loose shalwar along with knee-long shirts. Females dress consists of a shirt having a big pocket and embroidery and embedded round mirror work in front. A big Dupatta/ Chaddar is taken to cover the head and shoulders.

Festivals
Both religious and social festivals are celebrated by Baloch people. The religious festivals are same as across the country like Eid-ul-Azha and Eid-ul-Fiter. These religious festivals are celebrated by decorating houses wearing new dresses cooking special dishes. Baloch culture is full of many social festivals like Sibi festival which has folk music performance, cultural dances, handicrafts stalls, cattle shows and a number of other entertaining activities showing the colorful side of Baloch people. Buzkashi is another festival showing rather enhancing the bravery tactfulness and bravery of Baloch people. It is celebrated on horse-back by two teams that use their skills to snatch a goat from the each other.

Music
Baloch culture is rich in folk music dances and songs. Famous wedding songs of Baloch culture are Nazenk and Salonk.The instruments used are mainly a flute, locally called Nal, Tamboora and Soroz. A common Baloch folk dance is known as Dochaap. Women also move in a circle clapping their hands on certain occasions. Other dances include the Lewa, Latti and Hambo.

Food
Usually Baloch people have meals in morning and evening. Men and women eat separately. Wheat, millet and rice are part of the Baloch meal. Meat is also an important part; “Sajji” is the favorite dish of most people. Sajji is the food eaten with knife other than that Baloch people usually eat with hands. Milk, butter and vegetables are also part of Baloch cuisine.
Sports
Popular games include chauk, and Ji. Also games like wrestling, horse racing, shooting and hunting pastimes among the wealthier people of tribes. Card games and gambling are also popular among groups of some tribes.