The jal tarang, a peculiar instrument, consists of 11 to 14 china bowls of varying thickness and height. Each bowl is tuned by pouring in a certain quantity of water. The cups are arranged in a semicircular position. Usually, the biggest bowl is tuned to the dominant or sub-dominant tone of the scale. The player sits in the middle of the semicircle and strikes the rims of the water-filled bowls with two small sticks to produce a melody. The jal tarang was first mentioned by Aahu Bal Pandit in Sangeet Parijat (17th century).